Footnote 1 Two kinds of narratives have emerged over the last years. On the one hand, from a firm-level perspective and based on a managerial discourse, digitalization opens up new opportunities to firms. As highlighted in Cirillo et al. In this context—as suggested by Briken et al. Among the I4. Is this always the case? Footnote 2. This Forum aims to collect several contributions developed over the last couple of years that provide elements of discussion about the on-going process of digitization and its consequences on work organization and re-organization of industries—with a peculiar attention toward the automotive industry which has been at the forefront of the use of industrial robots since the s and in the use of computer-integrated manufacturing since the s Briken et al.
In our opinion, there are several critical dimensions that would be important to take into account in order to get a more comprehensive and valid debate about digitalization processes and eventually to depict possible policy suggestions. First, as Cetrulo and Nuvolari—in this Forum—highlight, the adoption of a specific technology within firms is not neutral neither deterministic, but it depends on the complex interaction of knowledge and dynamic capabilities Zollo and Winter and on the distribution of power between capital and labor Braverman However, the concern on the impact on employment of technologies is not new Freeman and Soete and it comes to the front even in the current debate on the introduction of digital innovation in manufacturing and service industries, while a deep understanding of work organization is lacking and should involve several aspects to deal with.
An investigation on the current and future change of labor, work organization and institutions involved in this process has not been entirely carried out. The paper by Moro, Rinaldini, Staccioli and Virgillito in this Forum and the one by Tubaro and Casilli discuss about quality of work related to the use of digital tools, on the one side; and work reorganization on a global scale through the fragmentation of production processes in micro-tasks, on the other side.
As a second critical dimension taken into account in this Forum, we question the common narrative of a technological change as a deterministic and neutral process, claiming instead its social and political dimension Noble If a non-deterministic approach prevails, a room for opening up a general discussion on modes of production, output and value distribution emerges—as Nuvolari and Cetrulo in this Forum acknowledge.
From this point of view, it is worth to understand the specificity of the European industrial structure in which the political design of I4. Europe as a whole has lost positions as far as the participation in the world industrial production Pianta et al.[HD] O'Reilly Auto Parts
This phenomenon has been accelerated in the years after the starting of the world crisis in —, while Asian countries have gained substantially in the las decades. Both North America and Europe have decreased but it has been much more intensive in the case of European economies, although with a high degree of heterogeneity among countries.
More generally, we can assert there exist deep asymmetries between European regions: a German-core integrated by the German Cluster, the UK and the Nordic countries versus a European periphery in which we can incorporate Portugal, Greece, Italy, Spain and Ireland and a third cluster including Central and Eastern economies. This heterogeneity has to do with a number of economic parameters i. Although the literature about Industry 4.How can progressive politics create innovative public policy able to engage with the challenges of work in the digital age?
This task comes at a time of exceptional volatility in European and North American politics, significant shifts in geopolitical power from west to east, and a profoundly changing global economic order where new forms of capitalism, with greater levels of state intervention, are emerging in countries such as China, Russia and India. The consequences of the great recession for the people of Europe have been painful and long lasting. They have increased the economic divide between southern and northern Europe and impoverished many in Eastern Europe.
With increasing rates of economic divergence, social exclusion and poverty in countries that were hit the most by the crisis, levels of trust in political institutions have also deteriorated among EU citizens Muro and Vidal ; see Theodoropoulou this volume.
These developments have polarised and fragmented party systems across Europe and have led to the rise of a new generation of challenger parties on the left and right Hobolt and Tilley It has also undermined the power of traditional centre-right and centre-left parties who are being electorally squeezed, and find it increasingly difficult to build coalitions.
This shake up of the centre ground has meant that governing coalitions commonly include more than two parties Belgium, the Netherlands and Norwayrightwing populist parties Austria, Finland, Norway and Polandor are formed as minority governments Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the UK. Progressives are often relegated to nothing more than spectators. In some countries, the electoral success of rightwing populist parties has made it difficult to form any stable government at all, as was seen in the elections in the Czech Republic and Italy.
Only in very few cases have progressives broken the mould, notably in France and Portugal, where they remain electorally potent. Adding to this post-crisis socio-economic and political era of uncertainty are new technologies and the debate on the robotisation of work that have left many people disorientated about their personal future and prosperity.
There is not only increasing uncertainty about what the future of work will look like Benhamou this volume and whether there will be enough jobs to go round Arnold et al.
Introduction: The Marketization of Everyday Life
Although there is an intellectual debate unfolding, to which this volume seeks to contribute, in modern economies traditional political concepts, solutions and narratives are no longer resonating with large parts of the electorate. Yet, the solutions on offer from traditional parties do not seem to be convincing. Arguably, this explains the rise in support for populists who have successfully exploited this vacuum with anti-establishment strategies, claiming that traditional parties are unable to respond to these challenges by highlighting the dangers of migration and open borders Goodwin There is a risk that the effects of digitalisation may exacerbate the next populist backlash, which could be directed at machines and their owners.
This makes it more relevant for progressives to offer a convincing narrative that addresses the concerns of voters and at the same time recognises the vast economic opportunities for business, industry and the public sector that this revolution presents. There is time for policymakers to respond to the challenges outlined in this volume.
Political realities and a reform agenda for the digital age
But it is imperative for them to be better prepared and develop a deeper understanding of the changes that lay ahead. This requires the identification of new concepts of work and the role of business and the state in the promotion and provision of modern social welfare and social dialogue systems see Jolly this volume; Palier this volume. These new concepts need to explain how a friendly environment for growth, innovation and job creation, with high-quality training and education and fair taxation of firms and corporations, can be developed.
Such an approach also needs to include a more rigorous consideration of the social and political — not only industrial — consequences of an economy where value is increasingly created from intangible assets, including data, data-sharing, branding and marketing Hofheinz this volume.
Soete argues that the third industrial revolution was dominated by a sense of technological determinism and international competitiveness during the s. Despite the belief of developing a malleable European model of the information society, the speed of change made it feel impossible to govern; liberalisation and deregulation became the default options. This created the feeling that there was no capacity for policy action to address the threats of job loss and low productivity.Volvo 2003 2005 v70 xc70 xc90complete wiring
This sense of incapacity cannot be repeated with the advent of the fourth industrial revolution. In this book the scene-setting theoretical chapters and case studies offer insights into the current state of the debates about the future of work in Europe, what the challenges and solutions are, and who the main actors are that may promote and precipitate change.
The chapters often highlight the human, social and political response to the main challenges of the fourth industrial revolution, which have more on offer for policymakers and politicians than just liberalisation and deregulation. The contributions also offer brief yet comprehensive analyses from experts, and perspectives from different countries, which catalyse the debates at regional, national and supra-national level.
The book makes it clear that countries are moving at different speeds. Our comparison of the different levels of digital density, even within the EU, illustrates the variety of challenges different social and political actors face. Such a comparative perspective has until now been surprisingly lacking in the vast volumes of research on the fourth industrial revolution. As people feel increasingly insecure about what the future of work will mean for them, there is a need for democratic discourse and control relating to socio-technical changes caused by digital advancements.
While conservatives and right-wing populists offer easy solutions to complex scenarios, either by protecting vested interests or deregulating industries, the centre left must claim leadership by providing individuals with strong safety nets and empowering tools in a new work environment, and by advancing a narrative of an open and updated society.
This book illustrates that we are at a key political juncture where these issues need a more informed public policy-based discussion about the direction of change, a debate that has not yet received the attention it deserves.Occupational mobility, employment transitions and job quality in Europe: The impact of the Great Recession.
Economic and Industrial Democracy. Innovation and job quality. A firm-level exploration. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. Does AI Qualify for the Job? Additional charts to figure 5. Articles in edited books.Toyota dbc file
Neufeind, J. Michalos ed. Warhurst, T. Findlay, C. Tilly and F. Bauer et al. Esteve Mora and A. Selected policy-oriented reports and working papers. Bisello Not so disruptive yet? Urzi Brancati Do robots really destroy jobs?
Work in the Digital Age: Challenges of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Fana Pesole, M. Brancati, F. Biagi, F. Bisello and M.Steak thickness chart
Hurley, E. Peruffo, D. Storrie, M. Poel and El. Paniagua de la Iglesia : Labour market integration of migrants and their descendants in EuropeEurofound, Dublin. Bisello and V. Hurley and J.Is it possible for progressives to present a vision of the future of work that harnesses the power of technology, but puts people at its heart?
While global in nature, the fourth industrial revolution is evidently moving at different speeds through different national contexts. Drawing on a wide range of international expertise, a major new publication examines the critical policy challenges arising from the transformation of work in the digital age. In a series of essays, we hear from more than 50 policy experts across the world on the effects of automation, platform business models, stagnating productivity, and rising level of inequality within and between countries.
They consider how to unlock the vast economic and social potential of new technologies and the implications for policy innovation at the firm, sectoral and state level.
Allen, R. Allen, R, and Masters, D. Paper prepared for Public Law Project session, 16 October. London: Cloisters. Blackham, A. Bogen, M. Brione, P. Acas Research Paper. Interim report. London: The Centre for Data Ethics. Chamorro-Premuzic, T. London: Committee on Standards in Public Life.
Dalenberg, D. Edwards, L. Brussels, Fjeld, J. Harvard University. Gerards, J. Griffin, P.Paranoid about smelling bad reddit
London: House of Commons. Fourth Report of Session Irving, A. London: Penguin. Neufeind, M. Piasna, A. Rennie, J. Tzanou, M. Tzanou ed. Wachter, S. West, S. Williams, B. A, Brooks, C.A common thread in these approaches is the claim that scale and scope of change will be unprecedented Boyd and Holton, ; Wajcman, However, present data and historical comparisons to previous waves of automation indicate commonalities and limitations to technological transformation that must be carefully considered, particularly with regard to the political implications of technological substitution Spencer, This paper interrogates the idea that the introduction of intelligent machines in different industries represents a qualitative shift in human-machine relations.
First, it argues that, based on the political economy of technological changes in production and their social effects, we are in the midst of an industrial revolution driven by intelligent automation or machines that adapt to augment or displace labour based on interactions with their environment. The accuracy level of the top-performing machine intelligences generally exceeds the average accuracy level expected of human intelligence performing the same task Chui et al.
Second, this paper argues that the existing macro-level studies see Frey and Osborne, on the effects of intelligent automation fail to consider a number of material and social factors that highlight the political dimensions of intelligent automation.
The global reach of digital products and perpetual updating of software catalyse the process of creative destruction, yet also provide for new opportunities for rent capture and exploitation Soete, These factors pose a political challenge to the displacement paradigm through which the effects of technological change on labour have traditionally been understood Acemoglu and Restrepo, Acemoglu, D.
Artificial intelligence, automation and work. Arntz, M. Boyd, R.Esperimenti dingegneria genetica nel pd pisano
Technology, innovation, employment and power: Does robotics and artificial intelligence really mean social transformation? Journal of Sociology 54, — Brynjolfsson, E. The second machine age: work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies, Norton paperback.
Chui, M. Notes from the AI frontier: Applications and value of deep learning Discussion paper. McKinsey Global Institute, London. Ford, M. Martin R. The rise of the robots: technology and the threat of mass unemployment. Oneworld, London, England. Frey, C. The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Haskel, J. Capitalism without capital the rise of the intangible economy.
Neufeind, M. Work in the digital age: challenges of the fourth industrial revolution Identifying the challenges for work in the digital age.
How and why do people commodify their free time? This book explores the marketization of blogging, cooking, craftwork, gardening, knitting, selling secondhand items, sexcamming, and, more generally, the economic use of free time. The development of web platforms, the current economic context, and the post-Fordist values can account for this extension of market and labor to ordinary people.
Moi, petite entreprise. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. Google Scholar. Adkins, L. Contingent Labour and the Rewriting of the Sexual Contract. Dever Eds. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Australian Feminist Studies, 29 791— CrossRef Google Scholar. Appadurai, A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ashton, D. Luckman Eds. Banks, M. Abingdon: Routledge. Baudelot, C. Paris: Fayard. Baym, N. Connect with Your Audience!
The Relational Labor of Connection. The Communication Review, 18 114— Botsman, R. London: HarperCollins Business. Bourdieu, P. Media, Culture, and Society, 2— Stanford: Stanford University Press. Cardon, D.
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